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Historia ya Tanzania- History of Tanzania
The first contacts of European nations with East Africa were the Portuguese to find spices. The Portuguese established trade and supply post on the East African coast for ships overseas. In 1698, the Portuguese lost control of the sea routes and the Arabs of Oman became in dominance having profitable trade in slaves and ivory. Sayyid Sa’id bin Sultan, the ruler of Oman during 1806 to 1856, believed in free trade. Sayyid encouraged many foreign merchants such as Arab monopolies to trade and commercial treaties. This made modern Zanzibar indebt for most of his power. Sayyid dies losing a large empire behind, Zanzibar, East Africa to the great Lakes and the Congo. Zanzibar produced cloves on plantations worked by slaves. This country produced three quarters of the world’s cloves. The British forced to close down the slave trade although slavery was not abolished.
Germany had interest in 1884. Karl Peters established the Society for German Colonization which would ensure protection for their inland African states. Britain and Germany created treaties for territories on the mainland. The British protected Zanzibar and Pember. Germany ruled Tanganyika (now Tanzania) and Ruanda-Urundi (now Rwanda and Burundi). In the power of Germany, the German implemented taxes on funding administration and infrastructure that benefited the German settlers. The African communities rebelled against Germany’s actions until the Germans scorched earth policy that starved southern Tanzania into submission. After World War I, Germany dominance no longer existed. Most of the territory of Tanganyika was passed to Britain under the League of Nations.
In 1954, Julius K. Nyerere, a school teacher who was one of only two Tanganyikans well educated, organized a political party called the Tanganyika African National Union (TANU). The United Kingdom agreed with this establishment self-government. Nyerere became the chief minister of the subsequent government. In May 1961, Nyerere became Prime Minister and on December 9, 1961, Tanganyika achieved full independence electing Julius Nyerere as their President. Tanganyika became the first East African state to gain independence. Under the power of Nyerere, Tanganyikans were proud of their strong sense of nationalism committed to their national language Swahili. As Nyerere became the President establishing a republic nation of Tanganyika, Zanzibar was going through political issue. Zanzibar became independent on December 10, 1963, under the Zanzibar Nationalist Party (ZNP). The following January of 1964 ZNP government was overthrown by ZNP’s rivals the Afro-Shirazi Party (ASP) installing Abeid Karme as President of Zanzibar. In April 1964, Tanganyika emerged with Zanzibar and became the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar having Nyerere as President and Karme as President of Zanzibar and Vice-President of Tanganyika and Zanzibar. Karme was assassinated and the next President of Zanzibar was Aboud Jumbe.
Tanzania became more of a socialist country under Nyerere. Tanzania was one of the strongest supporters in international affairs. Reelected without opposition, Nyerere was serving his fifth and last term in 1980. Early 1980s, Tanzania was experiencing poor economic performances. Zanzibar was unsatisfied with the islands’ political ties to the mainland with the attempt to overthrow Jumbe. As a result for Aboud Jumbe and his colleagues trying to push for more autonomy for Zanzibar, Jumbe was forced to resign by the union government in January 1986. Jumbe’s heir Ali Hassan Mwinyi was elected President of Zanzibar. Mwinyi won presidential and parliamentary elections over Nyerere in November 1985. Mwinyi identified him and his party as Chama cha Mapinduzi (CCM) seeking greater political and economic liberalization. The CCM controlled almost all areas of social affairs. It was hard of the country to adapt to liberalization. In 1992, a conference of CCM voted unanimously to introduce a multiparty system allowing new parties to participate in elections. In the 1990s, conflict occurred between the mainland Tanzania and Zanzibar. It is because of the ongoing Christian-Muslim division. Mwinyi as president had to shuffle his cabinet several times to balance Christian and Muslim interests in 1993.